Laparoscopic Urology

  • Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgery, also known as a keyhole surgery. It is a surgical diagnostic procedure done using a small instrument called a laparoscope to examine the organs inside the abdominal cavity.

  • An abnormality that results in poor or slow drainage of urine from the kidneys is called a ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. It is treated with Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty.

  • Laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) is a treatment for recurrent non-muscle-invasive disease and a organ-confined muscle-invasive bladder cancer. It is a minimally invasive surgery and is the best alternative to the traditional open radical cystectomy (ORC) in selected patients..

  • Laparoscopy is one of the best procedures to diagnose impalpable undescended testis. At an initial stage, diagnostic laparoscopy is performed to check the location of the testis, its size, its distance from the internal ring, presence of hernia on affected as well as unaffected side, etc.

  • Laparoscopy refers to the use of a small telescope and fine instruments to diagnose and treat conditions within the body cavity. Laparoscopy involves 3-4 small incisions (~1 cm each) made on the abdominal wall through which the telescope and instruments are introduced into the body cavity to perform complex surgeries.Laparoscopy refers to the use of a small telescope and fine instruments to diagnose and treat conditions within the body cavity. Laparoscopy involves 3-4 small incisions (~1 cm each) made on the abdominal wall through which the telescope and instruments are introduced into the body cavity to perform complex surgeries.

Laparoscopic Urology (Brief)

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgery, also known as a keyhole surgery. It is a surgical diagnostic procedure done using a small instrument called a laparoscope to examine the organs inside the abdominal cavity. A laparoscope is a thin tube instrument with a high-intensity light and camera. The laparoscope is inserted inside the abdomen through the incisions made on the abdominal wall. The camera attached to the laparoscope sends out the images of the internal organs to a video monitor for the doctor to examine the inside of the body in real time without open surgery. Laparoscopy has recently been developed in the field of urologic surgeries that allows the surgeons to perform this minimally invasive surgery for various urologic diseases and problems.

Laparoscopic nephrectomy

Laparoscopic Nephrectomy is a safe and effective surgical procedure used to remove the diseased or cancerous kidney, fully or partially. Being a minimally invasive surgery, patients experience significantly less post-operative pain and a faster recovery.

The Procedure:

Laparoscopic nephrectomy is a 3-4 hour surgery and is performed under a general anesthesia. 3-4 small (1 cm) incisions are made on the abdominal wall. A laparoscope and other fine instruments is inserted through these keyhole incisions into the abdomen to examine the kidney of the patient. The diseased kidney is dissected and is placed in a plastic sack and removed through one of the incisions.

Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy

Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy is a safe and effective way to remove a part of the kidney while preserving the remainder of the kidney. It is usually done for small tumors of the kidney.

The Surgery

The procedure for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is similar to the laparoscopic nephrectomy. The difference is that instead of removing the whole kidney, only the diseased part of the kidney is removed. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is more technically demanding as compared to a laparoscopic nephrectomy.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a surgical procedure done to treat urinary problems caused due to an enlarged prostate. A surgical instrument called resectoscope is inserted through the tip of the penis into the urethra (a tube that carries urine from the bladder). The prostate surrounds the urethra. Any excess prostate tissue that may be blocking the urine flow is trimmed away by the urologist using the resectoscope.

Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

An abnormality that results in poor or slow drainage of urine from the kidneys is called a ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. It is treated with Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty, a minimally invasive procedure performed to do a reconstructive surgery to correct the blockage or the narrowing where the ureter attaches the kidneys. UPJ obstruction can cause abdominal pain, stones, infections, high blood pressure and weakening the kidney functions.

The Procedure:

Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty is a minimally invasive procedure performed under a general anesthesia. Through 3-4 small incisions, the surgeon will divide or remove the blockage at the junction of the kidney and ureter with the help of a telescope and fine laparoscopic instruments. Once the blockage is completely removes, the kidney will be joined to ureter again with the help of sutures for normal drainage functioning of the kidney. To speed the healing of the suture line, a ureteric stent is put in the pelvis of the kidney. A bladder catheter is placed to monitor urine output and a drainage tube if placed to prevent fluid from collecting inside the body cavity.

Laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC)

Laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) is a treatment for recurrent non-muscle-invasive disease and a organ-confined muscle-invasive bladder cancer.It is a minimally invasive surgery and is the best alternative to the traditional open radical cystectomy (ORC) in selected patients. The morbidity is much lower and recovery faster with a laparoscopic approach as compared to the traditional open surgery.

Laparoscopy for undescended testis

Laparoscopy is one of the best procedures to diagnose impalpable undescended testis. At an initial stage, diagnostic laparoscopy is performed to check the location of the testis, its size, its distance from the internal ring, presence of hernia on affected as well as unaffected side,etc. If the testis is not present in the peritoneal cavity, the surgeon will check for the presence of vas deferens and testicular vessels, and if they end blindly or if vas deferens and testicular vessels are entering the inguinal canal.

The Procedure

Laparoscopy for undescended testis is usually done under a general anesthesia in supine position with 30 Trendlenberg tilt. A port is used for the telescope to be placed through the umbilical tube through sub-umbilical transverse incision. Two 5-mm posts are used in the lower quadrants at umbilicus level along the mid clavicular line.The procedure henceforward is decided according to the diagnosis results. A procedure called laparoscopic orchidectomy is performed if the adult patient's affected testis is atrophic with contra lateral normal size testis in the scrotum. In other cases, a procedure called One-stage orchiopexy is performed where the undescended testis is closer to the internal ring. In some cases the undescended testis is closer to the iliac vassels than the internal ring, for such cases, Two-stage Fowler - Stephen Orchiopexy is done.

Laparoscopic urology

Laparoscopy refers to the use of a small telescope and fine instruments to diagnose and treat conditions within the body cavity. Laparoscopy involves 3-4 small incisions (~1 cm each) made on the abdominal wall through which the telescope and instruments are introduced into the body cavity to perform complex surgeries.

Applications of laparoscopy in urology include but are not limited to:

1. Laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN): LN refers to removal of a diseased / damaged or cancerous kidney. Laparoscopy is now the preferred methods of removal of the kidney. 3-4 small incisions are made on the abdominal wall and the kidney is dissected free, its blood supply is divided and the kidney is then removed through a small incision in the lower abdomen.

2. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN): LPN is an extension of LN and involves the removal of the diseased or cancerous part of the kidney while saving the normal part of the kidney. It is usually performed for small tumors of the kidney. It is a technically demanding surgery but has now become the standard of care for selected small tumors of the kidney.

3. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: In Laparoscopy Donor Nephrectomy, the surgeon removes a healthy kidney from the donor to transplant it into a person with kidney failure requiring dialysis.

4. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty : Laparoscopic pyeloplasty if a minimally invasive method for treatment of a condition where there is a blockage to the flow of urine from the kidney into the ureter (Pelviureteric Junction Obstruction , PUJ onstruction). The surgeon divides the blocked segment and then joins the pelvis of the kidney to the ureter over a stent.

5. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy: Radical cystectomy is the treatment of choice for recurrent / invasive urinary bladder cancer. It is a major surgery but now can be performed with the laparoscopic approach in selected cases.

6. Laparoscopy for undescended testis : Laparoscopy has become the diagnostic as well as therapeutic modality of choice for undescended testis (testis which have not normally come down to the scrotum).

7. Laparoscopic stone surgery: In selected cases, kidney / ureteric stones may require laparoscopy for removal.



1. Wide range of applications

2. Small incision size

3. Less chances of wound infection

4. Less blood loss

5. Less postoperative pain

6. Faster recovery

7. Shorter hospital stay



Considering the advantages, laparoscopy if a favoured methods of treatment wherever possible.

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